Before tame plants and animals were achieved and could apply thus to agriculture and grazing, the man lived hunting, activity that included the fishing and collection of products of vegetable or animal origin; not is specify attained when was that the first human groups arrived to the California peninsula. What we can be sure is that in certain parts of Northern peninsula, in the site known as Laguna de Chapala, had human presence approximately 15 millennia before our era. It is likely that the settlement of the Center and the South of the peninsula has been more recent.

50 years ago, Paul Kirchhoff was hypothesized that the settlement of the peninsula was carried out by successive waves of migrants, which was forcing the advanced groups to continually move south to be cornered. It has been estimated that the mainland Aboriginal population by the time of spanish-indigenius contact, was about between 40,000 and 50,000 individuals, this population spread throughout the peninsula, including in areas as low resources as the Vizcaino desert.

Very little is known about the culture origin of the first inhabitants of the peninsula, but it is not risky to assume that, going into what we have called the arid California, those immigrants had to enter into a process of social and cultural adaptation which led them to successfully interact with the natural environment and thus ensure its ancient survival.

The californios were organized in bands or as is les called formerly “rancherias”. These social units Basic, typical of hunter-gatherers, not usually passed 250 individuals. The members of each an of these bands were United between if by ties of kinship and by the made of that occupied them a same territory of travel. Also them joined the practice common of an economy that, as some authors have designated, requires that all occupied a same territory of travel. Also joining them a common practice of an economy as some authors have pointed out, requires all members of the group, cooperation and mutual assistance.

The union of  conjugal couple not must have been very firm, but neither can talk of promiscuity without limits. True polygyny, surely well regulated seems to have been characteristic of groups that inhabited the southern end of the peninsula. The dependence of minors with respect to parents began to become minor when they began to be able to get by themselves their food.

We can be abble to  formulate the hypothesis that the peninsula came several sets of inhabitants of different linguistic affiliation, Jesuit missionaries have identified thre languages spoken extensively: the Pericu, for the group in the southern part; the Guaycura, spoken from the region of La Paz to Loreto and the Cochimí, extended in the rest of the peninsula.

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